State of the art

Hybrid-electric propulsion: rationale and scope

  1. M. Hepperle, DLR, Electric Flight – Potential and limitations, NATO STO-MP-AVT-209, November 2012.
  2. A. Misra, NASA, Electric & hybrid aerospace technology symposium, Cologne, November 2018.
  3. R. Lafontan, Airbus, ESOF Conferences, Toulouse, July 2018.
  4. A. W. Schäfer, Technological, economic and environmental prospects of all-electric aircraft, Nature Energy, 2019, vol 4, February 2019.
  5. M. Hornung, Ce-Liner Case study for eMobility in Air Transportation, AIAA 2013.

Hybrid -lectric Propulsion architectures

  1. M.K. Bradley & al., Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II – Volume II – Hybrid Electric Design Exploration – NASA/CR-2015218704.
  2. L. Raffaelli & al., Optimisation of a high bypass ratio turbofan engine using energy storage, Greener Aviation, October 2016.
  3. A. Ang & al., Performance analysis of an electrically assisted propulsion system for a short range civil aircraft, J. Aerospace Engineering, 2018.
  4. C. Lents & al., Parallel hybrid gas-electric geared turbofan engine conceptual design and benefits analysis, AIAA 2016, 4610.
  5. K.R. Antcliff & al., Mission analysis and aircraft sizing of a hybrid electric regional aircraft, 2016.
  6. A. Seitz, & al., Conceptual Study of a Mechanically Integrated Parallel Hybrid Electric Turbofan, IMechE Part G: J. Aerospace Engineering, 2018.
  7. K.R. Antcliff, Conceptual design of the parallel electric-gas architecture with synergetic utilization scheme (PEGASUS) concept, 2017.
  8. M. Strack & al, Conceptual Design Assessment of Advanced Hybrid Electric Turboprop Aircraft Configurations, 17th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA 2017, 3068.
  9. B. Ortun & al., Propulsive and structural methods for pre-design of distributed propulsion aircraft, AEGATS 2018, paper 23.
  10. JL. Freeman& al., ECO-150-300 Design and Performance: A tube-and-wing distributed electric propulsion airliner, AIAA SciTech Forum, 2019.
  11. P. Schmollgruber & al., Multidisciplinary design of an ONERA hybrid electric distributed propulsion concept (DRAGON), AIAA SciTech Forum, 2019.
  12. R. de Vries & al., Preliminary sizing of a hybrid electric passenger aircraft featuring over-the-wing distributed propulsion, AIAA SciTech Forum, 2019.
  13. C. Bowman & al., Turbo and hybrid-electrified aircraft propulsion concepts for commercial transport, AIAA 2018, 4984.
  14. Felder, J. L., Brown, G. V., DaeKim, H., & Chu, J., Turboelectric distributed propulsion in a hybrid wing body aircraft., ISABE-2011, 1340

Electric machines, power electronics and electric architectures

  1. A. Misra, Technical challenges and barriers affecting turbo-electric and hybrid electric aircraft propulsion, ENERGYTECH 2017, Cleveland
  2. F. Anton (Siemens AG), High output motor technology for hybrid-electric aircraft, EHA technology symposium, Cologne, November 2017.


  1. Nick, W et al.. (2012). Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines. Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications, 482, 105-110.
  2. ECOSWING - H2020 :
  3. ASUMED - H2020 :
  4. TELOS- LuFo V-2 :
  5. F. Berg et al., HTS System and component targets for a distributed aircraft propulsion system, IEEE Transactions 10.1109/TASC.2017.2652319
  6. L Graber et al 2017, Cryogenic power electronics at megawatt-scale using a new type of press-pack IGBT, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 279 012011 :

Testing and demonstrations

  4. A.N. Varyukhin & al., Hybrid propulsion system for commuter airliners, More Electric Aircraft Conference, Toulouse, 2019.